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acute lymphoblastic leukemia wiki


[23] Evidence whether lesser radiation, as from x-ray imaging during pregnancy, increases risk of disease remains inconclusive. It is the most common type of leukemia and is also called acute lymphocytic leukemia. The remaining 15% of T-cell lineage have a male predominance. The WHO subtypes related to ALL are: [42]. [15] Additionally, recurrent infections, feeling tired, arm or leg pain, and enlarged lymph nodes can be prominent features. Certain genetic syndromes, like Down Syndrome, have the same effect. Hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the chromosome mutation of leukemic cells with 45 chromosomes or less. Evidence for the role of the environment is seen in childhood ALL among twins, where only 10–15% of both genetically identical twins get ALL. Examples of this include the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene that combines two factors that promote blood cell development and the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene of the Philadelphia chromosome. [1] Evidence regarding electromagnetic fields or pesticides is unclear. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment Protocols. [2] In T-cell ALL, LYL1 , TAL1 , TLX1 , and TLX3 rearrangements can occur. [53]. CME Programs. Platelets are critical for the normal clotting of blood. Varying arrangements of subunits serve as the endodomain, but they generally consist of the hinge region that attaches to the scFv, a transmembrane region, the intracellular region of a costimulatory molecule such as CD28, and the intracellular domain of CD3-zeta containing ITAM repeats. Over the past several decades, there have been strides to increase the efficacy of treatment regimens, resulting in increased survival rates. [2] This is then followed by further chemotherapy typically over a number of years. KMT2A (formerly MLL) gene rearrangements are most common and occur in the embryo or fetus before birth. Since the advent of chemotherapy, prognosis for childhood leukemia has improved greatly and children with ALL are estimated to have a 95% probability of achieving a successful remission after 4 weeks of initiating treatment. The ETV6 protein regulates the development and growth of diverse cell types, particularly those of hematological tissues. In adults, ALL is less com­mon than acute myel­oge­nous leukemia (AML). These people in relapse may also receive blinatumomab, as it has shown to increase remission rates and overall survival rates, without increased toxic effects. DeAngelo DJ, Pui C. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. [6], Evidence suggests that secondary leukemia can develop in individuals treated with certain types of chemotherapy, such as epipodophyllotoxins and cyclophosphamide. Chapter 19 of American Society of Hematology Self-Assessment Program. [4] The underlying mechanism involves multiple genetic mutations that results in rapid cell division. English: Acute lymphoblstic leukemia (ALL) is a a malignant lymphatic blood disease. [2] The excessive immature lymphocytes in the bone marrow interfere with the production of new red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. In general, cytotoxic chemotherapy for ALL combines multiple antileukemic drugs tailored to each person. B-cell ALL is often associated with cytogenetic abnormalities (specifically, t(8;14), t (2;8) and t(8;22)), which require aggressive therapy consisting of brief, high-intensity regimens. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is an aggressive form of cancer of the white blood cells, it develops slowly but once symptoms show it rapidly becomes worse.It is a rare type of cancer as only 650 people in the UK on average are diagnosed with it each year. Some types may develop into acute myeloid leukemia. Chemotherapy for ALL consists of three phases: remission induction, intensification, and maintenance therapy. While many symptoms of ALL can be found in common illnesses, persistent or unexplained symptoms raise suspicion of cancer. PMID 25605373. Environmental risk factors are also needed to help create enough genetic mutations to cause disease. Infant ALL is a rare variant that occurs in babies less than one year old. The result is a cell that divides more often. CML is a clonal bone marrow stem cell disorder in which a proliferation of mature granulocytes and their precursors is found. [28], In addition to cell morphology and cytogenetics, immunophenotyping, a laboratory technique used to identify proteins that are expressed on their cell surface, is a key component in the diagnosis of ALL. [44].mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}Hutter JJ (June 2010). 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