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woodland period north america


The Eastern Woodlands cultural region covers what is now eastern Canada south of the Subarctic region, the Eastern United States, along to the Gulf of Mexico.[2]. Period of North American pre-Columbian cultures, Middle Woodland period (200 BCE – 500 CE). The Woodland period is marked by the manufacture of ceramic vessels, construction of mounds, the rise and fall of a vast exchange network, unequal distribution of exotic raw materials and finished goods, and horticultural activity. The Early Woodland period began in the southern and midwestern part of North America about 1200 BC. Clan heads would then be buried along with goods received from their trading partners to symbolize the relationships they had established. At the same time, bow and arrow technology gradually overtook the use of the spear and atlatl, and agricultural production of the "Three Sisters" (maize, beans, and squash) was introduced. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. "Recent Discoveries Suggesting an Early Woodland Burial Cult in the Northeast". Pots were coiled and paddled entirely by hand without the use of fast rotation such as a pottery wheel. More and more people used pottery for their containers in addition to baskets. The Late Woodland period began about AD 500 and lasted about 500 years, until AD 1000. Your email address will not be published. University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh. During the Altithermal, Archaic peoples dug wells to stay alive in the … Archaic Advances . Examples also show pottery also was more decorated than Early Woodland. Various types of pottery were made including bowls, jars, and serving, storage. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. The Late Woodland period began about AD 500 and lasted about 500 years, until AD 1000. (1955). Examples include the Armstrong culture, Copena culture, Crab Orchard culture, Fourche Maline culture, the Goodall Focus, the Havana Hopewell culture, the Kansas City Hopewell, the Marksville culture, and the Swift Creek culture. They were made by soft-hammering percussion, and finished by pressure flaking.[14]. American Anthropologist 72(4):802–15. Native Americans – First Owners of America, Encyclopedia of Alabama And these changes set the stage for the developments that would take place in the Mississippian period. Most groups relied heavily on white-tailed deer, but a variety of other small and large mammals were hunted also, including beaver, raccoon, and bear. Another result of people not moving around as much was that the various bands did not see each other and share ideas as often, so styles of making pottery and tools became very distinct from region to region. As such, researchers are now redefining the period to begin with not only pottery, but the appearance of permanent settlements, elaborate burial practices, intensive collection and/or horticulture of starchy seed plants (see Eastern Agricultural Complex), differentiation in social organization, and specialized activities, among other factors. These have come to be known as the Hopewell tradition. The Havana style found in Illinois had a decorated neck. Cambridge University Press. Some were slipped or brushed with red ochre.[6]. The Woodland period is divided into Early (3,000 to 2,200 years ago), Middle (2,200 to 1,800 years ago) and Late (1,800 to 1,250 years ago) sub-periods. The University of the State of New York, Albany. The use of these divisions has diminished in most of North America … North America was a land of quite diversities from the east to the south. EVIDENCE FOR STEPPED PYRAMIDS OF SHELL IN THE WOODLAND PERIOD OF EASTERN NORTH AMERICA Thomas J. Pluckhahn, Victor D. Thompson, and W. Jack Rink Antiquarians of the nineteenth century referred to the largest monumental constructions in eastern North America as pyramids, but this usage faded among archaeologists by the mid-twentieth century. [3] It can be characterized as a chronological and cultural manifestation without any massive changes in a short time but instead having a continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather crafting, textile manufacture, cultivation, and shelter construction. One of the early periods was the Eastern Woodland period (800-200 BCE) which led to the mound emergence and when the Middle Woodland period (c. 200 BCE- AD 400) started, the mounds became more significant for ritual and spiritual meaning … Seasonal foraging also characterized the strategies of many interior populations, with groups moving strategically among dense resource areas. The Hopewell culture flourished in Ohio and other parts of eastern North America during the Middle Woodland Period, possibly as early as 100 B.C. The beginning of the Middle Woodland saw a shift of settlement to the Interior. In coastal regions, many settlements were near the coast, often near salt marshes, which were habitats rich in food resources. Though this practice seems to have originated in the Archaic Period in what is now, Louisiana, by about 1000 BC the tradition was adopted by people all over eastern North America. Stage classification. While full scale intensive agriculture did not begin until the following Mississippian period, the beginning of serious cultivation greatly supplemented the gathering of plants. Woodland trade networks distributed exotic raw materials and finished ceremonial artifacts all across eastern North America. The Woodland Period -- an archaeologically-designated period -- generally marks the appearance of pottery, cultivated plants, settled village life and mound building on the North American Continent. Required fields are marked *. "Prehistory of the Americas, 2nd Edition." "Initial formation of an indigenous crop complex Adena Culture – 1000 BC to 1 AD. As populations grew, people began to settle into larger villages and roup territories became more defined. During this time, populations increased and settlements filled up the landscape, spreading northward up small streams. Likely as a result of these regional gatherings, pottery from different places developed widespread similarities in form and decoration. The Hopewell culture first developed in what is now the Ohio Valley and other parts of the Midwest and gradually spread southward. [7] However, it has become evident that, in some areas of North America, prehistoric cultural groups with a clearly Archaic cultural assemblage were making pottery without any evidence of the cultivation of domesticated crops. Each contribution explores neighboring areas to llustrate the complexity of North … Some of these artifacts and materials were not local to the people such as copper from the Great Lakes area, mica from the southern Appalachians, and shells from the Gulf coast. People continued to live in base camps, but their increased numbers led to competition for resources and an increase in warfare. and cooking containers. Woodland Period by Dean Quigley, National Park Service. The Far Northeast, the Sub-Arctic, and the Northwest/Plains regions widely adopted pottery somewhat later, about 200 BCE. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. [13] The most archaeologically certifiable sites of burial during this time were in Illinois and Ohio. In North America, recognition of the ecological benefits of prescribed burning was slow in coming and varied geographically. Many of the groups of North America became agriculturalists, relying primarily on the Mesoamerican triad of corn, beans, and squash. Ritchie, W. A. These included Archaic, and Woodland period, and Mississippian period … In north-central Iowa, settlements were placed near the shores of natural lakes, where native … The term “Woodland Period” was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. The Old Copper Complex, also known as the Old Copper Culture, refers to the items made by early inhabitants of the Great Lakes region during a period that spans several thousand years and covers several thousand square miles. Our cookies are delicious. Organined by geographical and chronological divisions, each chapter focuses on trade in one of nine regions from the Arachiac through the late prehistoric period. [1] The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. Lastly, it may be that agricultural technology became sophisticated enough that crop variation between clans lessened, thereby decreasing the need for trade. Middle Woodland Period – 200 BC to 500 AD. Compiled by Kathy Weiser-Alexander, March 2020. Oshkosh, WI, List of archaeological periods (Mesoamerica), "The Woodland Period (ca. Historic Occupation I. in parts of the region.[12]. in eastern North America at 3800 B.P. The Adena culture built conical mounds in which single- or multiple-event burials, often cremated, were interred along with rich grave goods including copper bracelets, beads, and gorgets, art objects made from mica, novaculite, hematite, banded slate, and other kinds of stone, shell beads and cups, and leaf-shaped "cache blades". Early Woodland Period (1000–1 BCE) The archaeological record suggests that humans in the Eastern Woodlands of North America were collecting plants from the wild by 6,000 BCE and gradually modifying them by selective collection and cultivation. Early Woodland Period – 1000 BC to 200 BC. Until quite recently, the onset of the Woodland period was assumed to have been the time of the initial appearance of pottery vessels, the beginnings of mound ceremonialism, the emergence of sedentary village life with well-defined structures and settlements, and intensive cultivation of crops. Woodland. Furthermore, despite the widespread adoption of the bow and arrow during this time, the peoples of a few areas appear never to have made the change. However, they would leave as needed to hunt or fish in the surrounding areas. We use cookies. Many aspects of daily life during this time were not much different from those of the preceding Archaic Period. The term “Woodland Period” was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. Among the traded materials were copper from the Lake Superior deposits; silver from Lake Superior and especially Ontario; galena from Missouri and Illinois; mica from the southern Appalachians; chert from various places including Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois; pipestone from Ohio and Illinois; alligator teeth from the lower Mississippi Valley eastward to Florida; marine shells, especially whelks, from the south Atlantic and Gulf coasts; Knife River chalcedony from North Dakota; and obsidian from Yellowstone in Wyoming. Despite the apparent reduction of inter-regional exchange, the Late Woodland period was a time of important cultural changes, including the appearance of the bow and arrow in about around AD 700. The Middle Woodland period, lasting from about 200 BC to 600 AD, is marked by changes in settlement and subsistence patterns as populations increased and people began to spread into other areas to take advantage of diverse food resources. Under this scenario, permanent settlements would be likely to develop, leading to increased agricultural production and a population increase. [9] Nevertheless, these early sites were typical Archaic settlements, differing only in the use of basic ceramic technology. Mound construction dates back to at least 3000 BC. Recently evidence has accumulated a greater reliance on woodland peoples on cultivation in this period, at least in some localities, than has historically been recognized. Additionally, the mound centers expanded their functions from places of burial to places where civic and ceremonial functions occurred. The most cited technological distinction of this period was the widespread use of pottery (although pottery manufacture had arisen during the Archaic period in some places), and the diversification of pottery forms, decorations, and manufacturing practices. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. The most conclusive evidence suggests that native copper was utilized to produce a wide variety of tools beginning in the Middle Archaic period circa 4,000 BC. Because they now grew food that could be stored, people developed large, rounded jars used for storage. Woodland period. A variant of the Woodland tradition was found on the Great Plains. The name we use comes from Mordecai Hopewell, a Chillicothe landowner on whose property mounds were excavated in the 1800s. The earliest pottery included some that were made from plant fibers that were more typical of the Archaic period. This culture is believed to have been core to the Meadowood Interaction Sphere, in which cultures in the Great Lakes region, the St. Lawrence region, the Far Northeast, and the Atlantic region interacted. Late Woodland Period – 500 to 1000 AD. Coastal peoples practiced seasonal mobility, moving to the coast during the summer to take advantage of numerous marine resources such as sea mammals and shellfish, then moved to interior locations during the winter where access to deer, bear, and anadromous fish such as salmon could see them through the winter. During Hernando de Soto's travels through the Southeastern Woodlands around 1543, the groups at the mouth of the Mississippi river still preferentially used the spear. Although pottery, horticulture, and earthen mounds were familiar to some people who lived during the Archaic period, after about 1000 BC such innovations became widespread across Eastern North America. The Archaic and Woodland periods, the archaeological periods following the Paleo-Indian, are characterized by the development of plant domestication and the beginnings of organized agricultural activities. Mason, Ronald J. ", PNAS, vol. The bow and arrow made hunting less of a communal activity than it had been in the past, and individual families became more self-sufficient. Late Woodland settlements became more numerous, but the size of each one (with exceptions) was smaller than their middle Woodland counterparts. Archaic Period – 8000 BC to 3000 BC. Like the Archaic Period, each Woodland sub-period represents a slightly different way of life. The people of this era lived in small bands of related families, who shared a base camp most of the year. The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-g… Stone was used from nearby sources for making tools and tubular stone pipes first appeared during his period that were likely used for ritual and ceremonial smoking. Pots were usually made in a conoidal or conical jar with rounded shoulders, slightly constricted necks, and flaring rims. Throughout the Southeast and north of the Ohio River, burial mounds of important people were very elaborate and contained a variety of mortuary gifts, many of which were not local. Ceramics during this time were thinner and better quality than earlier times. However, an increase of exotic artifacts at Middle Woodland sites indicates that there was more interaction between different regions than there had been during the Early Woodland. C. Margaret Scarry (2003). Between 1500 and 1000 BC, people began using sand to temper the clay and pottery-making became much more common and widely distributed. In some areas, like South Carolina and coastal Georgia, Deptford culture pottery manufacture ceased after c. 700 CE. As the Woodland period progressed, local and inter-regional trade of exotic materials greatly increased to the point where a trade network covered most of the Eastern Woodlands. One of the most enduring classifications of archaeological periods and cultures was established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. The Far Northeast, the Sub-Arctic, and the Northwest/Plains regions widely adopted pottery somewhat later, about 200 BCE. Middle Woodland Period - The Hopewell Culture The Middle Woodland period, which lasted from roughly 100 B.C. Pottery first appears in Illinois during the Early Woodland. People like the Pueblo people settled down more in permanent villages and towns. Hopewell Culture – 100 BC – 500 AD. However, this pottery was not widespread, and most pottery was made with clay, tempered with crushed rock or limestone. The Woodland Period began about 3,000 years ago. Within this era, the classification is further divided into three more periods based on changes in the way people lived, including their settlement patterns, trading activities, subsistence, the tools they used, and mortuary practices. The oldest mound associated with the Woodland period was the mortuary mound and pond complex at the Fort Center site in Glade County, Florida. The Center for American Archeology specializes in Middle Woodland culture. The elaborate tombs are especially important because they indicate that the person buried there had a higher and/or special status. In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BC to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from AD 1000 to European contact as a separate period. C. Margaret Scarry states "in the Woodland periods, people diversified their use of plant foods ... [they] increased their consumption of starchy foods. The Paleoindian Period refers to a time approximately 12,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age when humans first … Woodland Period – 3,000 BC to 1000 AD. Alternatively, the efficiency of bows and arrows in hunting may have decimated the large game animals, forcing the tribes to break apart into smaller clans to better use local resources, thus limiting the trade potential of each group. Early Woodland Period – 3000 BC to 200 BC. During this time, people widely adopted horticulture, pottery-making, the bow and arrow, and complex ceremonies surrounding death and burial. Clay for pottery was typically tempered (mixed with non-clay additives) with grit (crushed rock) or limestone. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. The pottery was sometimes traded with other groups. The transition from the Late Archaic to the Early Woodland is marked by an increase in cultural developments that can be traced to the Middle and Late Archaic. Pottery, which had been manufactured during the Archaic period in limited amounts, was now widespread across the Eastern Interior, the Southeast, and the Northeast.

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